CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) was launched
July 21, 1990 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit, with apogee at
geosynchronous orbit (6.6 RE), perigee at 300 km, and an inclination
of 18 degrees relative to the equatorial plane.
CRRES carried a wide range of particle detectors as well as a
very accurate and
highly developed electric field instrument which
(now at the U of MN) was instrumental in developing.
CRRES was active for 16 months and the observations it made are revolutionizing
the study of the earth's radiation belts and the magnetosphere's
response to geomagnetic storms.
University of Minnesota CRRES Publications
- J.R. Wygant et. al., "The CRRES Electric Field/Langmuir
Probe Instrument", J. Spacecraft and Rockets, 29,
- Rowland, D. E. and J. R. Wygant, "Dependence of the large-scale, inner magnetospheric electric field on geomagnetic activity", Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 14959, 1998.
- "Observations of CRRES electric and magnetic field
measurements during the Alfven wave braking of a barium
release in the ionosphere", Geophys. Res. Lett., (1994).
- J.R. Wygant et. al., "Large amplitude electric and magnetic
field signatures in the inner magnetosphere during an SSC
induced injection of 15 MeV electron drift echoes",
Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, , 16, 1739 (1994).
Conference Presentations on CRRES Research
PAPCO Modules Available Online
Other CRRES Websites
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Last Updated : 18 March 1997