The Polar spacecraft is one of four spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science(GGS) program and is also part of the ISTP program. Polar was launched on February 24, 1996 and circles Earth in a polar orbit with an apogee of 57,000 km (34,200 miles) and perigee of 11,500 km (6900 miles). The orbital period of Polar is about 16 hours. The goal of the Polar mission is to measure solar wind entry, ionospheric output, and the deposition of energy into the neutral atmosphere at high latitudes. Polar carries instruments to measure high energy particles, electric fields and magnetic fields in Earth's magnetosphere, as well as visible, ultraviolet and X-ray imagers to observe the aurora from space.

University of Minnesota Polar Nuggets

Follow the links below for brief summaries of current U of MN research projects presented in plain or scientific English.

Conference Presentations on Polar Research


Papers on Polar for the JGR Special Issue on Polar

PAPCO Modules Available Online



Other Polar Websites



[CRRES] [FAST] [Geotail] [Polar] [Ulysses] [Wind]

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Last Updated : September 10, 1998